IPSCA is the nickname for the research project "Including people in smart city applications", funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation, and Universities under contract PID2021-125527NB-I00. The project starts on Sept. 1, 2022 and ends in Sept. 1, 2026. The project PIs are Antonio Vallecillo and Carlos Canal.

Project Summary

Currently, there is a growing interest in the social aspects of smart cities, which are cities that use technology to provide useful services to their citizens and to solve urban problems. A smart city aims to improve transportation and accessibility, enhance social services, promote sustainability, or reduce energy consumption, by using digital technologies.

Despite its a priori relevance, the role of individual citizens has often been neglected: smart city applications typically focus on collecting and analyzing data coming from all kinds of sensors, including some related to human activities, but without really integrating individual users into the loop, just considering them collectively, i.e., as a crowd. Moreover, citizens have to hand over their personal information to the service providers, losing control of their data, which becomes the property of third parties. Once under their control, these companies can employ it for any purpose, sometimes different from those it was generated for by the users.

In this project we propose to integrate people into the picture, not only from the perspective of synthetic or purely statistical data but by exploiting the information available about the people living in these cities, their behavioral habits and personal preferences. For this we will use their virtual profiles (or Digital Avatars, DA), defined in our previous project COSCA. DAs collect information about the daily activities of their owners, and combine this information with data from institutions and organizations that provide the city services. The distinguishing feature of DAs is that information is owned and managed by individual users, which enables the empowerment of users, allowing them to take control of the information and contents they generate, and how all that information is accessed and exploited in a secure manner by third parties.

We will make use of use Urban Digital Twin techniques to model specific aspects of the cities (transportation, heat maps on density of people in different points, air quality, etc.) combined with the models of the citizens themselves, and of their behaviors and personal preferences, represented by their DAs, to obtain a model that integrates both, and allows feedback between the model and the physical entities represented in it. The digital twin helps cities realize real-time remote monitoring, and allows more effective decision-making, including urban governance, smart healthcare and smart transportation.

To achieve all this, we will devise and develop an architectural framework for the development of socio-technical applications that consider individual habits, routines and preferences of users in the context of smart cities. This framework will provide a common architecture for these kinds of applications, as well as the required infrastructure and appropriate services for their implementation, deployment, analysis and execution.

Three major application scenarios, which are representative systems of the kinds application our framework will support, will serve to illustrate the scope and implications of this project, to validate our proposal, and to prototype our ideas.

More detailed information can be found in the original research project proposal.

Project Resources

All resources developed during the project, including models, datasets, tools and applications, are available on the project's git repository: IPSCA repository

Project Publications


  • Nicolás Pozas, Francisco Durán, Katia Moreno Berrocal, Ernesto Pimentel. "Location-aware scalable service composition". Softw. Pract. Exp. 53(12): 2408-2429, 2024.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1002/spe.3260. (Open access)
  • Francisco Durán, Nicolás Pozas and Camilo Rocha. "Business processes resource management using rewriting logic and deep-learning-based predictive monitoring". J. Log. Algebraic Methods Program. 136: 100928, 2024.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1016/j.jlamp.2023.100928. (Open access)
  • Rafael García-Luque, Lorenzo Toro-Gálvez, Nathalie Moreno, Javier Troya, Carlos Canal and Ernesto Pimentel. "Integrating Citizens’ Avatars in Urban Digital Twins". Journal of Web Engineering, 22(06):913–938, Elsevier, 2023.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.13052/jwe1540-9589.2264. (Open access)
  • Alejandro Pérez-Vereda, Carlos Canal and Ramón Hervás. "Distributed mobile CEP for collaborative social computing". Computing 106(3):889-913, Springer, 2024.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/s00607-023-01254-x. (Open access)
  • Meysam Karimi, Shekoufeh Kolahdouz-Rahimi and Javier Troya. "Ant-colony optimization for automating test model generation in model transformation testing". Journal of Systems and Software, 111882, 2024.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1016/j.jss.2023.111882. (Open access)
  • Javier Cámara, Rebekka Wohlrab, David Garlan and Bradley Schmerl. "Focusing on What Matters: Explaining Quality Tradeoffs in Software-Intensive Systems via Dimensionality Reduction". IEEE Software, pp. 1--10, 2023.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1109/MS.2023.3320689. (Open access)
  • Bentley James Oakes, Javier Troya, Jessie Galasso, Manuel Wimmer. "Fault localization in DSLTrans model transformations by combining symbolic execution and spectrum-based analysis". Software and Systems Modeling, pp. 1619-1374, 2023.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/s10270-023-01123-3. (Open access)
  • Ruben Salado, Antonio Vallecillo, Kamran Munir, José R. Romero. "SWEL: A Domain-Specific Language for Modelling Data-Intensive Workflows". Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE), to appear, 2023.
  • Jean-Marc Jézéquel, Antonio Vallecillo. "Uncertainty-aware Simulation of Adaptive Systems". ACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul., pp. 8:1--8:19, 2023.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1145/3589517. (Open access)
  • Javier Cámara, Javier Troya, Lola Burgueño, Antonio Vallecillo. "On the assessment of generative AI in modeling tasks: an experience report with ChatGPT and UML". Softw. Syst. Model, pp. 1-13, 2023.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/s10270-023-01105-5. (Open access)
  • Jordi Cabot, Antonio Vallecillo. "Modeling should be an independent scientific discipline". Softw. Syst. Model., pp. 2101--2107, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/s10270-022-01035-8. (Open access)
  • Alejandro Perez-Vereda, Ramon Hervas, Carlos Canal. "Digital Avatars: A programming framework for personalized human interactions through virtual profiles". Pervasive and Mobile Computing, 101718, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1016/j.pmcj.2022.101718. (Open access)
  • Javier Cámara, Rebekka Wohlrab, David Garlan, Bradley Schmerl. "ExTrA: Explaining architectural design tradeoff spaces via dimensionality reduction". Journal of Systems and Software, 111578, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1016/j.jss.2022.111578.
  • Javier Cámara, Javier Troya, Antonio Vallecillo, Nelly Bencomo, Radu Calinescu, Betty H. C. Cheng, David Garlan, Bradley R. Schmerl. "The uncertainty interaction problem in self-adaptive systems." Softw. Syst. Model 21(4):1277-1294, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/s10270-022-01037-6. (Open access)

International Conferences

  • Lola Burgueño, José Miguel Horcas, Jörg Kienzle: Development and Evolution of Software Product Lines Driven by Stakeholder Beliefs. In proc. of SPLC, 2023: 34-40
  • Sergio Laso, Lorenzo Toro-Gálvez, Javier Berrocal, Carlos Canal, Juan Manuel Murillo: "Deploying Digital Twins Over the Cloud-to-Thing Continuum", Proc. of the IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC 2023), Gammarth (Tunisia), July 2023. DOI: 10.1109/ISCC58397.2023.10218052.
  • Alejandro Pérez-Vereda, Luis Cabañero, Nathalie Moreno, Ramón Hervás, Carlos Canal: "Distributed Crowdsensing Based on Mobile Personal Data Stores". In Proc. of the 15th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing & Ambient Intelligence (UCAmI 2023), LNNS, vol 841, pp. 3-15, Springer, 2023.
  • Francisco Durán, Nicolás Pozas, Carlos Ramírez, Camilo Rocha: Statistical Model Checking for sf P. FMICS 2023: 40-56
  • Lola Burgueño, Damien Foures, Benoit Combemale, Jörg Kienzle and Gunter Mussbacher: Global Decision Making Support for Complex System Development. In Proc of RE, 2024
  • Meriem Ben Chaaben, Lola Burgueño, Houari A. Sahraoui: "Towards using Few-Shot Prompt Learning for Automating Model Completion". In Proc. of ICSE (NIER track), 2023
  • Robbert Jongeling, Antonio Vallecillo: "Uncertainty-aware consistency checking in industrial settings." In Proc. of MODELS'23. Västerås, Sweden, Oct 1-6, 2023.

International workshops

  • David Delgado, Lola Burgueño, Javier Cámara, Javier Troya:"Towards an Extensible Architecture and Tool Support for Model-Based Verification. " In Proceedings of MoDELS (Companion), 2023: 806-810
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1109/MODELS-C59198.2023.00129.
  • Sergio Laso, Lorenzo Toro-Gálvez, Javier Berrocal, Javier Troya, Carlos Canal, Juan Manuel Murillo. "Towards an Urban Digital Twins Continuum Architecture". In Proc. of the 2nd International Workshop on Digital Twin Architecture (TwinArch@ECSA 2023), Istambul (Turkey), September 2023. [It has been presented at the workshop and is awaiting publication of the proceedings]
  • Nathalie Moreno, Lorenzo Toro-Gálvez, Javier Troya, Carlos Canal. "Modeling Urban Digital Twins over the Cloud-to-Thing Continuum". Proc. of the 3rd International Workshop on MDE for Smart IoT Systems (MeSS@STAF 2023), Leicester (UK), July 2023.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.13052/jwe1540-9589.2264.
  • Rafael García-Luque, Ernesto Pimentel, Antonio Bandera. "Digital Avatars: An application to eHealth". In Proc. of 2nd International Workshop on Web Applications for Life Sciences (WALS) at ICWE'23, 2023 [It has been presented at the conference and is awaiting publication of the proceedings].
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.13052/jwe1540-9589.2264.
  • Lorenzo Toro-Gálvez, Rafael García-Luque, Javier Troya, Carlos Canal, Ernesto Pimentel. "Towards the Integration of Digital Avatars in Urban Digital Twins on the Cloud-to-Thing Continuum". Current Trends in Web Engineering - ICWE 2023 International Workshops, Revised Selected Papers, CCIS, vol. 1898, pp. 67-74, Springer, 2023.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-50385-6.
  • Paula Muñoz. "Measuring the fidelity of digital twin systems." In Proc. of the Doctoral Symposium at MoDELS'22, pp. 182-188, ACM, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1145/3550356.3558516.
  • Paula Muñoz. "How alike are my physical and digital twins?" In Proc. of the ACM Student Research Competition at MoDELS'22, pp. 201-204, ACM, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1145/3550356.3552393.
  • Paula Muñoz, Manuel Wimmer, Javier Troya, Antonio Vallecillo. "Using trace alignments for measuring the similarity between a physical and its digital twin." In Proc. of the 2nd International Workshop on Model-Driven Engineering of Digital Twins (ModDIT@MODELS'22) pp. 503-510, ACM, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1145/3550356.3563135.

National conferences

  • Francisco Navarrete, Manuel Atencia, Antonio Vallecillo. "PROLE 2023 Towards a Rewriting-Logic Semantics of P". Ciudad-Real, Spain, 2023.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • Francisco Navarrete, Manuel Atencia, Antonio Vallecillo. "Clasificación de Delitos con Incertidumbre". In Proc. of JISBD'23, Ciudad-Real, Spain, 2023.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • Rafael García-Luque, Ernesto Pimentel. "Un marco de trabajo basado en Avatares Digitales para Telemedicina". In Proc. of JCIS'23, Ciudad-Real, Spain, 2023.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • Enrique Vílchez, Javier Troya, Javier Cámara. "Towards Self-Adaptive Software for Wildfire Monitoring with Unmanned Air Vehicles". In Proc. of JISBD'23, Ciudad-Real, Spain, 2023.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • Paula Muñoz, Antonio Vallecillo. "¿Qué es un Gemelo Digital? Una Propuesta de Arquitectura para su Implementación". In Proc. of JISBD'23, Ciudad-Real, Spain, 2023.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • Alejandro Pérez Vereda, Ramón Hervás, Carlos Canal. "Digital Avatars: A programming framework for personalized human interactions through virtual profiles". In Proc. of JISBD'23, Ciudad-Real, Spain, 2023.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • Paula Muñoz, Paula Aitor Arrieta, Antonio Vallecillo. "Alineamiento de trazas de Gemelos. El Caso de Estudio de un Ascensor". In Proc. of JISBD'23, Ciudad-Real, Spain, 2023.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • Lola Burgueño, Paula Muñoz, Robert Clarisó, Jordi Cabot Sagrera, Sébastien Gérard, Antonio Vallecillo. "Dealing with Belief Uncertainty in Domain Models". In Proc. of JISBD'23, Ciudad-Real, Spain, 2023.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • Lola Burgueño, Jordi Cabot Sagrera, Shuai Li and Sébastien Gérard. "A generic LSTM neural network architecture to infer heterogeneous model transformations". In Proc. of JISBD'23, Ciudad-Real, Spain, 2023.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • Lorenzo Toro-Gálvez, Nathalie Moreno, Carlos Canal, Javier Troya. "DASSCi: Avatares Digitales Deportivos en Ciudades Inteligentes". Actas de las XVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2023), Ciudad Real, Septiembre 2023.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • Javier Cámara, Rebekka Wohlrab, David Garlan, Bradley Schmerl. "ExTrA: Explaining architectural design tradeoff spaces via dimensionality reduction". In Proc. of JISBD'23, Ciudad-Real, Spain, 2023.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • Javier Cámara, Radu Calinescu, Betty Cheng, David Garlan, Bradley Schmerl, Javier Troya, Antonio Vallecillo. "Addressing the Uncertainty Interaction Problem in Software-intensive Systems: Challenges and Desiderata". In Proc. of JISBD'23, Ciudad-Real, Spain, 2023.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)

Books and book chapters

Technical reports