CoSCA is the nickname for the research project "Digital Avatars: A Framework for Collaborative Social Computing Applications", funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation, and Universities under contract PGC2018-094905-B-I00. This project started on January 1, 2019 and ended on September 30, 2022. The project PIs are Antonio Vallecillo and Carlos Canal.

Project Summary

Social computing (SC) is the area of Information Technology (IT) that deals with the interrelationships between social behavior and computer systems. Originally focused on the processing and analysis of social information, the term has progressively evolved towards a wider meaning that includes the use of computer systems to support any type of social behavior, and where humans become the main protagonists, i.e., not only as beneficiaries but also as active players.

To support Social Computing,current systems are mostly based on server-centric applications whereby contents created by distributed users are transferred to cloud servers. This is, for instance, the model commonly used in the majority of applications for smart cities, a domain where Social Computing is rapidly gaining relevance. This project explores alternative models for SC, different from client-server systems. In particular, we advocate the adoption of collaborative peer-to-peer models based on mobile devices, e.g., smartphones or tablets, as the main components of the system architecture. Specifically, we will focus on mobile-based collaborative social computing applications (CoSCA). This model of collaborative computing enables the empowerment of users, allowing them to take control of the information and contents they generate, and how all that information is accessed and exploited in a secure manner by third parties.

This project introduces the concept of a Digital Avatar (DA), an entity residing in a persons smartphone or tablet that records information about the owner and interacts with the environment and with the DAs of other users ensuring the levels of privacy and security dictated by its owner i.e., it will serve as a proxy for its owner in the context of collaborative computing applications. Another essential aspect of this project is the incorporation of uncertainty into the information managed by the applications, and into the patterns that define the behavioral rules of the DAs. The representation and management of uncertainty is required because of the inherent lack of precision in the measurement instruments that manage real data (e.g., GPS sensors or local clocks); lack of confidence in the data sources (e.g., defective sensors or unreliable networks), or incomplete or erroneous assumptions about the environment in which these applications operate.

In summary, this project targets both the definition and development of users' DAs, and the specification, modeling, analysis, and implementation of Collaborative Social Computing Applications that can be built with them. To achieve this, we will devise and develop an architectural framework for the development of mobile-based collaborative social computing applications. This framework will provide a common architecture for these kinds of applications, as well as the required infrastructure and appropriate services for their implementation, deployment, analysis, and execution.

Three major application scenarios, which are representative systems of the kinds of applications our framework will support, will serve to illustrate the scope and implications of this project, to validate our proposal, and to prototype our ideas.

More detailed information can be found in the original research project proposal.

Project Resources

All resources developed during the project, including models, datasets, tools and applications, are available in several Github repositories:

Project Publications


  • Javier Cámara, Rebekka Wohlrab, David Garlan, Bradley Schmerl. "ExTrA: Explaining architectural design tradeoff spaces via dimensionality reduction". Journal of Systems and Software, 111578, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1002/spe.2962.
  • Francisco Durán, Ajay Krishna, Michel Le Pallec, Radu Mateescu, Gwen Salaün. "Models and analysis for user-driven reconfiguration of rule-based IoT applications". Internet of Things 19:100515, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1002/spe.2962. (Open access)
  • Rebekka Wohlrab, Javier Cámara, David Garlan, Bradley Schmerl. "Explaining quality attribute tradeoffs in automated planning for self-adaptive systems". Journal of Systems and Software, 111538, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1016/j.jss.2022.111538. (Open access)
  • Javier Cámara, Javier Troya, Antonio Vallecillo, Nelly Bencomo, Radu Calinescu, Betty H. C. Cheng, David Garlan, Bradley R. Schmerl. "The uncertainty interaction problem in self-adaptive systems". Software and Systems Modeling 21(4):1277-1294, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/s10270-022-01037-6. (Open access)
  • Jordi Cabot, Antonio Vallecillo. "Modeling should be an independent scientific discipline". Software and Systems Modeling 21(6): 2101-2107, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/s10270-022-01035-8. (Open access)
  • Javier Troya, Sergio Segura, Lola Burgueño, Manuel Wimmer. "Model Transformation Testing and Debugging: A Survey". ACM Computing Surveys, 55(4):1-39, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1145/3523056. (Open access)
  • Jesús Sánchez Cuadrado, Lola Burgueño, Manuel Wimmer, Antonio Vallecillo. "Efficient Execution of ATL Model Transformations Using Static Analysis and Parallelism". IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 48(4):1097-1114, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1145/3523056. (Open access)
  • Alejandro Rodríguez, Francisco Durán, Adrian Rutle, Lars Michael Kristensen. "Simulation and Analysis of MultEcore Multilevel Models based on Rewriting Logic". Software and Systems Modeling 21(2):561-586, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/s10270-021-00947-1 . (Open access)
  • Patrícia Araújo de Oliveira, Francisco Durán, Ernesto Pimentel. "A procedural and flexible approach for specification, modeling, definition, and analysis for self-adaptive systems". Softw. Pract. Exp. 51(6):1387-1415, 2021.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1002/spe.2962. (Open access)
  • Antonio Brogi, Jose Carrasco, Francisco Durán, Ernesto Pimentel, Jacopo Soldani. "Self-healing trans-cloud applications". Computing 104(4): 809-833, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/s00607-021-00977-z. (Open access)
  • S. Laso, J. Berrocal, J. García-Alonso, C. Canal, J.M. Murillo. "Human microservices: A framework for turning humans into service providers". Software: Practice and Experience 51(9):1910-1935, Wiley, 2021, ISSN 1097-024X.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1002/spe.2976. (Open access)
  • Francisco Durán, Camilo Rocha, Gwen Salaün. "Resource provisioning strategies for BPMN processes: Specification and analysis using Maude". J. Log. Algebraic Methods Program. 123: 100711 (2021)
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1016/j.jlamp.2021.100711. (Open access)
  • Aurora Ramirez, Nathalie Moreno, Antonio Vallecillo. "Rule-based preprocessing for data stream mining using complex event processing". Expert Syst. J. Knowl. Eng. 38(8):e12762, 2021.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1111/exsy.12762. (Open access)
  • Mohammad Derakhshandi, Shekoufeh Kolahdouz-Rahimi, Javier Troya, Kevin Lano. "A model-driven framework for developing android-based classic multiplayer 2D board games". Automated Software Engineering, Volume 28, Issue 2, Article 7, 2021.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/s10515-021-00282-1. (Open access)
  • Javier Troya, Nathalie Moreno, Manuel F. Bertoa and Antonio Vallecillo. "Uncertainty representation in software models: A survey". Software and Systems Modeling (Sosym) 20(4):1183-1213, 2021.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/s10270-020-00842-1. (Open access)
  • Gala Barquero, Javier Troya and Antonio Vallecillo. "Improving Query Performance on Dynamic Graphs". Software and Systems Modeling (Sosym). 20(4):1011-1041. 2021,
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/s10270-020-00832-3. (Open access)
  • Alejandro Pérez-Vereda, Carlos Canal and Ernesto Pimentel. "Modelling digital avatars: A tuple space approach". Science of Computer Programming 203:102583, 2021.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1016/j.scico.2020.102583. (Open access)
  • Manuel F. Bertoa, Nathalie Moreno, Alejandro Pérez-Vereda, David Bandera, Carlos Canal and José M. Alvárez-Palomo. "Digital Avatars: Promoting Independent Living for Older Adults". Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, 2020.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1155/2020/8891002. (Open ccess)
  • Javier Berrocal, José García-Alonso, Pablo Fernández, Alejandro Pérez-vereda, Juan Hernández, Carlos Canal, Juan Manuel Murillo, Antonio Ruiz-Cortes. "Early Evaluation of Mobile Applications’ Resource Consumption and Operating Costs". IEEE Access 8:146648-146665, 2020.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3015082. (Open access)
  • Paula Muñoz, Loli Burgueño, Victor Ortiz, Antonio Vallecillo. "Extending OCL with Subjective Logic". Journal of Object Technology 19(3), 3:1–15, 2020.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.5381/jot.2020.19.3.a1. (Open access)
  • Jose García-Alonso, Javier Berrocal, Alejandro Pérez-Vereda, Jaime Galán-Jiménez, Carlos Canal and Juan M. Murillo. "Using Bluetooth Low Energy Advertisements for the Detection of People Temporal Proximity Patterns". Mobile Information Systems, 2020:8506323:1-17, 2020.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1155/2020/8506323. (Open access)
  • Manuel F. Bertoa, Nathalie Moreno, Loli Burgueño, Antonio Vallecillo. "Incorporating Measurement Uncertainty into OCL/UML Primitive Datatypes". Software and Systems Modeling 19(5):1163–1189, 2020.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/s10270-019-00741-0. (Open access)
  • Loli Burgueño, Tanja Mayerhofer, Manuel Wimmer, Antonio Vallecillo. "Specifying Quantities in Software Models". Information and Software Technology, 113:82-97, 2019.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1016/j.infsof.2019.05.006. (Open access)
  • Nathalie Moreno, Manuel F. Bertoa, Loli Burgueño, Antonio Vallecillo. "Managing Measurement and Occurrence Uncertainty in Complex Event Processing Systems". IEEE Access, 7:88026-88048, 2019.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2923953. (Open access)

International Conferences

  • Francisco Durán, Gwen Salaün "Optimization of BPMN Processes via Automated Refactoring". In Proc. of ICSOC'22, LNCS 13740, pp. 3-18, Springer, 2022,
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-20984-0_1. (Open access)
  • Javier Cámara, Radu Calinescu, Betty H.C. Cheng, David Garlan, Bradley Schmerl, Javier Troya and Antonio Vallecillo. "Addressing the Uncertainty Interaction Problem in Software-intensive Systems: Challenges and Desiderata". In Proc. of MODELS’22, pp. 24-30, ACM. Montreal, Canada, October 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1145/3550355.3552438. (Open access)
  • Nathalie Moreno, Alejandro Pérez-Vereda, Antonio Vallecillo. "Managing Reputation in Collaborative Social Computing Applications". In Proc. of ECMFA 2022. Journal of Object Technology, 21(3):1--13, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.5381/jot.2022.21.3.a1. (Open access)
  • Nicolás Pozas, Francisco Durán: "On the Scalability of Compositions of Service-Oriented Applications". In Proc. of ICSOC 2021, LNCS 13121, pp. 1–15, 2021. In Press.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-91431-8_28. (Open access)
  • Francisco J. Navarrete and Antonio Vallecillo. “Introducing Subjective Knowledge Graphs”. In Proc. of EDOC’21, pp. 61-70, October 2021. IEEE.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1109/EDOC52215.2021.00017. (Open access)
  • Paula Muñoz, Alejandro Pérez-Vereda, Nathalie Moreno, Javier Troya, Antonio Vallecillo. "Incorporating Trust into Collaborative Social Computing Applications". In Proc. of EDOC’21, pp. 21-30, October 2021. IEEE.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1109/EDOC52215.2021.00020. (Open access)
  • Antonio Vallecillo, Martin Gogolla. "Modeling Behavioral Deontic Constraints Using UML and OCL". In Proc. of ER'2020, Vienna, Austria, LNCS 12400, pp. 134-148, Springer.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-62522-1_10. (Open access)
  • David Bandera, Alejandro Pérez-Vereda, Carlos Canal and Ernesto Pimentel. "One Step Towards Dynamically Programmable Things: an Implementation Using Beacons". 2019 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), Barcelona, Spain, 2019, pp. 1171-1176
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1109/ISCC47284.2019.8969584. (Open access)
  • Alejandro Pérez-Vereda, Juan M. Murillo and Carlos Canal. "Dynamically Programmable Virtual Profiles as a Service". In Proc. of 2019 IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence & Computing, Advanced & Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing & Communications, Cloud & Big Data Computing, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation (SmartWorld/SCALCOM/UIC/ATC/CBDCom/IOP/SCI). Leicester, United Kingdom, 2019, pp. 1789-1794
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1109/SmartWorld-UIC-ATC-SCALCOM-IOP-SCI.2019.0031. (Open access)
  • Gala Barquero, Javier Troya and Antonio Vallecillo. "Trading Accuracy for Performance in Data Processing Applications". In Proc. of ECMFA 2019, Journal of Object Technology 18(2)9:1-24, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, July 2019.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.5381/jot.2019.18.2.a9. (Open access)
  • Martin Gogolla, Antonio Vallecillo. "On Softening OCL Invariants". In Proc. of ECMFA 2019, Journal of Object Technology 18(2)6:1-24, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, July 2019.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.5381/jot.2019.18.2.a6. (Open access)

International workshops

  • Paula Muñoz. "Measuring the fidelity of digital twin systems". In Proc. of the Doctoral Symposium at MoDELS'22, pp. 182-188, ACM, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1145/3550356.3558516.
  • Paula Muñoz. "How alike are my physical and digital twins?". In Proc. of the ACM Student Research Competition at MoDELS'22, pp. 201-204, ACM, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1145/3550356.3552393.
  • Paula Muñoz, Manuel Wimmer, Javier Troya, Antonio Vallecillo. "Using trace alignments for measuring the similarity between a physical and its digital twin". In Proc. of the 2nd International Workshop on Model-Driven Engineering of Digital Twins (ModDIT@MODELS'22) pp. 503-510, ACM, 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1145/3550356.3563135.
  • Daniel Pérez-Porras, Paula Muñoz, Javier Troya, Antonio Vallecillo. "Key-Value vs Graph-based data lakes for realizing Digital Twin systems". Proceedings of the 2nd International workshop on MDE for Smart IoT Systems (MESS@ STAF 2022), Nantes, France. 5 July 2022
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10630/24677. (Open access)
  • Francisco Durán, Yliès Falcone, Camilo Rocha, Gwen Salaün, Ahang Zuo "From Static to Dynamic Analysis and Allocation of Resources for BPMN Processes". In Proc. of WRLA@ETAPS, LNCS 13252:3-21, Springer 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-12441-9_1. (Open access)
  • Francisco Durán, Daniela Martínez, Camilo Rocha "Business Processes Analysis with Resource-Aware Machine Learning Scheduling in Rewriting Logic". In Proc. of WRLA@ETAPS, LNCS 13252: 113-129, Springer 2022.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-12441-9_6. (Open access)
  • Francisco Durán, Ajay Krishna, Michel Le Pallec, Radu Mateescu, Gwen Salaün "Seamless Reconfiguration of Rule-based IoT Applications". SEAMS 2021: 142-148
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1109/SEAMS51251.2021.00027
  • Francisco Durán, Ajay Krishna, Michel Le Pallec, Radu Mateescu, Gwen Salaün "R-MOZART: A Reconfiguration Tool for WebThings Applications". ICSE (Companion Volume) 2021: 41-44
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1109/ICSE-Companion52605.2021.00031
  • Paula Muñoz, Javier Troya, Antonio Vallecillo. "Using UML and OCL Models to Realize High-Level Digital Twins". In Proc. of the 1st International Workshop on Model-Driven Engineering of Digital Twins (ModDiT@MoDELS 2021), pp. 212-220, October, 2021.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1109/MODELS-C53483.2021.00037. (Open access)
  • David Bandera, Alejandro Pérez-Vereda, Carlos Canal and Ernesto Pimentel. "A Programming Framework for People as a Service". Service-Oriented Computing – ICSOC 2019 Workshops. LNCS, vol. 12019, pp. 308-312, Springer, 2020.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-45989-5_29. (Open access)
  • Manuel F. Bertoa, Nathalie Moreno, Alejandro Perez-Vereda, David Bandera, José M. Álvarez-Palomo and Carlos Canal "Digital Avatars for Older People’s Care". In Proc. of IWog@Gerontechnology'19. CCIS, vol. 1185, pp. 59-70, Springer, 2020.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-41494-8_6 (Open access)
  • Loli Burgueño, Robert Clarisó, Jordi Cabot, Sébastien Gerard and Antonio Vallecillo. "Belief Uncertainty in Software Models". In Proc. of MiSE@ICSE'19, Montreal, Canada, May 26-27, 2019. IEEE.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1109/MiSE.2019.00011 (Open access)
  • Paula Muñoz, Loli Burgueño, Martin Gogolla and Antonio Vallecillo. "Automatic Generation of Valid Behavioral Scripts from UML Sequence Diagrams". In Proc. of the OCL and Textual Modeling workshop at MODELS 2019, Munich, Germany, September 2019.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • Victor Ortiz, Loli Burgueño, Antonio Vallecillo and Martin Gogolla. "Native Support for UML and OCL Primitive Datatypes Enriched with Uncertainty in USE". In Proc. of the OCL and Textual Modeling workshop at MODELS 2019, Munich, Germany, September 2019.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)

National conferences

  • Paula Muñoz, Javier Troya, Antonio Vallecillo. "Análisis de Conformidad de Gemelos Digitales Multi-Fidelidad". JISBD2022, Santiago de Compostela, España, Septiembre 2022 .
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • Alejandro Rodríguez, Francisco Durán, Adrian Rutle, Lars Michael Kristensen. "Towards a Maude-based implementation of MultEcore multilevel modelling languages". PROLE 2021.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • Francisco Durán, Antonio Moreno-Delgado. "First steps towards a specification of Blockchain systems using Maude". PROLE 2021.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • S. Laso, D. Bandera, J Berrocal, J. Garcia-Alonso, J.M. Murillo, C. Canal. "Una Propuesta para la Composición de APIs Distribuidas". XVI Jornadas de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2021), Málaga, 2021.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • D. Bandera, N. Pozas, M.F. Bertoa, J.M. Álvarez, C. Canal, E. Pimentel. "Extensión de Digital Avatars para crowdsensing". XVI Jornadas de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2021), Málaga, 2021.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • J. Rojo, J. Garcia-Alonso, J. Berrocal, J. Hernandez, J.M. Murillo, C. Canal. Social Events Analyzer (SEA): Un toolkit para minar Social Workflows mediante Federated Process Mining. XVI Jornadas de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2021), Málaga, 2021.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • José Díaz Gaspar, Paula Muñoz and Antonio Vallecillo. "Generación automática de pruebas exhaustivas a partir modelos con contratos". JISBD 2021. Málaga, España, Septiembre 2019.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • Aurora Ramírez, Nathalie Moreno, Manuel F. Bertoa and Antonio Vallecillo. "Preprocesado de flujos de datos mediante reglas CEP". JISBD 2019. Cáceres, España, Julio 2019.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • Alejandro Pérez-Vereda, Carlos Canal and Ernesto Pimentel. "Formalización de una arquitectura de computación móvil basada en Linda". Jornadas de PROgramación y LEnguajes PROLE, Sistedes 2019. Cáceres, España, Septiembre 2019.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)
  • Alejandro Pérez-Vereda, David Bandera and Carlos Canal. "Procesamiento de Eventos Complejos para la determinación de rutas en ciudades inteligentes". Jornadas de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios JCIS, Sistedes 2019. Cáceres, España, Septiembre 2019.
    [BibTeX] (Open access)

Books and book chapters

  • Robert Heinrich, Francisco Durán, Carolyn L. Talcott, and Steffen Zschaler (eds.). "Composing Model-Based Analysis Tools". Springer, 2021. ISBN 978-3-030-81914-9
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-81915-6
  • Sergio Laso, Javier Berrocal, José Garcia-Alonso, Carlos Canal, and Juan M. Murillo. Computing for Humans as Service Providers, Next-Gen Digital Services, LNCS 12521, pp. 111–122, Springer 2021.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-73203-5_9
  • Daniel Flores-Martin, Alejandro Pérez-Vereda, Javier Berrocal, Carlos Canal and Juan M. Murillo. "Interconnecting IoT Devices to Improve the QoL of Elderly People" 2020 (pp. 148-165). IGI Global.
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1937-0.ch009 (Open access)

Technical reports

  • Francisco Durán, Robert Heinrich, Diego Perez-Palacin, Carolyn L. Talcott, Steffen Zschaler: Composing Model-Based Analysis Tools (Dagstuhl Seminar 19481). Dagstuhl Reports 9(11): 97-116 (2019)
    [BibTeX] DOI: 10.4230/DagRep.9.11.97
  • Nathalie Moreno, David Bandera, Manuel F. Bertoa, Carlos Canal, Alejandro Pérez-Vereda, Paula Muñoz, Antonio Vallecillo. "Model of the Air Conditioning (AC) system" Technical Report. July 2020.
    [BibTeX] (PDF) (Summary Presentation)